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Many independent media outlets are hampered by a lack of revenue.
Publishers and media owners tend to dictate editorial policy based on political and economic affiliations, which, together with the employment insecurity journalists face, nurtures a culture of self-censorship.
Some of Britain’s highest paid vice-chancellors have earned tens of thousands of pounds from the university sector’s main pension scheme, which is billions of pounds in deficit. Some of Britain’s highest paid vice-chancellors have earned tens of thousands of pounds from the university sector’s main pension scheme, which is billions of pounds in deficit. A suspected Russian spy acted as interpreter between Theresa May and the Ukrainian prime minister when the two leaders discussed security issues in Downing Street this summer, it emerged yesterday.
Dame Glynis Breakwell, head of the University of Bath, received £50,000 last year as chairwoman of the fund’s policy committee. Dame Glynis Breakwell, head of the University of Bath, received £50,000 last year as chairwoman of the fund’s policy committee. Stanislav Yezhov, a senior Ukrainian aide who was part of the delegation led by Volodymyr Groysman to No 10 in July...
Press freedom advocates in 2006 continued to urge the government to decriminalize defamation, which could incur a maximum sentence of two years in prison under existing statutes.
Although the parliament failed to act on draft amendments introduced in 2005, Prime Minister Sali Berisha in October of that year ordered government officials to use the right of reply rather than civil or criminal defamation suits to address perceived bias or inaccuracy in the media. The prospects for legal reform improved in June, when Albania signed a Stabilization and Association Agreement with the European Union.
In a high-profile case that was criticized extensively by both local and western groups, Ali Mohaqiq Nasab, editor of the monthly women's rights magazine Haqooq-i-Zan, was ordered arrested by the high court for publishing articles deemed to be "anti-Islamic." Despite the fact that the government-appointed Media Commission cleared him of blasphemy charges, he was sentenced by the high court to two years' imprisonment in October and also faced the threat of a court-issued fatwa that could have increased his sentence.
Nasab was released in December, but the case is considered to have had a chilling effect on press freedom, with an accompanying rise in self-censorship.
Coverage by state-owned broadcasters had favored the incumbents in the run-up to July 2005 elections, and at least four cases of violence against journalists were reported that year, but the country largely avoided a repeat of such problems in 2006.In September, an investigative television show aired recorded conversations in which a government official appeared to pressure two nephews of President Alfred Moisiu to convince their uncle to fire the attorney general, whom Berisha has accused of corruption in a politically charged standoff.Albania has 66 private television stations, at least 45 private radio stations, and roughly 200 print publications in circulation.In one of several cases, two reporters working for Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty were arrested in July by intelligence services in Konar province and were detained for a week without charge.
Many practice self-censorship or avoid writing about sensitive issues such as Islam, national unity, or crimes committed by specific warlords.
Religious conservatives also targeted the progressive Tolo TV, which had been criticized by clerics for airing programs that "oppose Islam and national values." In May, a popular female television presenter who had worked at Tolo was murdered, possibly by family members who did not approve job, and other program hosts received threats or were forced off the air, according to the Committee to Protect Journalists.